Also keep in mind, furry wind socks such as used in your test will not eliminate wind noise. The only thing that will effectively block all wind distortion is a blimp--anywhere from $300 to a lot more. A furry wind sock will help reduce the effects of lite wind a little bit, but for harsh wind it will not help very much.
If you cannot afford a blimp, which I suspect you probably cannot, I would suggest getting your Rode mic onto a boom pole as close to the subject as possible. (If you cannot afford a boom pole, you can make a basic one yourself, with plenty of tutorials online) Try to place your subjects in a place shielded away from the wind if possible; behind a tent, house, building, large car ect. Another trick would be to place your subjects with their backs to the wind, then place your mic on your boom pole upside down in front of them with the mic pointing at their mouths. This will create a human wind block. We have had a bit of success with using large objects you may have with you such as a 5 in 1 reflector as a wind block for the mic.
A good preventative would be to keep a lookout for wind speeds when deciding when to film. Filmmaking is all about intentional planning and setting yourself up for success.
The problem you are hearing is not a case of advanced settings or post production. It is a matter of setting your camera's audio levels manually; and cutting off your limiter. Right now in that test clip, anytime the wind became loud, the camera's auto audio control would bring the levels down...wind and speech.
I have the 15" 2013 retina with the Navida 750M. I use Premiere Pro CC and a little FCPX. The performance with 4K is pretty good, not exempt from regular crashing though...I'm thinking this is more of an Adobe problem than an Apple one.
(By regular crashing I mean 2-3 times per hard editing day...on a good day; on a really bad day I lose count:-)
I know a composer named Bryan Atkinson who is does extraordinary scores! He is finishing the scores for the second season of a show we are working on. After nearly 20 episodes scored by him I think I can give him a good recommendation. As he is just starting out he is very affordably priced as well.http://bryanatkinson.net/
I'm not sure on a Windows, but on a Mac it's control+tilda
For a short film, story board and shoot! Don't film everything extra wide and then crop in post. Cropping is a very handy feature for run and gun work, and single camera interviews. But if you are shooting a short film, take the time and do it right. Maybe plan the shots where you might want to crop back and fourth; maybe if you do not have the time at a particular location to shoot twice for angles. Just remember that it will always look better if you just scale the 4K down to HD without cropping. For run and gun work, I like to frame my shot like normal, then zoom out a bit...maybe 20 percent.