Wouldn't it be easier to just post a link to some YT review?
Couple of thing that weren't mentioned by others:
1) I thing that learning the basic of sound is extremely important for a filmmaker but in the and the best choice is working with a sound person. One person simply cannot master everything.
2) One thing that is omitted in almost all "Audio 101" videos is portable field mixer. This one piece of gear is central to every professional sound bag and quality of its preamps, limiters etc. shapes the overall quality of your sound.
Good starting point for understanding the role of field mixer would be: http://www.bhphotovideo.com/find/newsLetter/PortableFieldMixers.jsp
3) There is this popular misconception that shotgun mics are the best mics for recording film audio. While it is true for outdoor field recording, in indoor situation shotguns are rarely used because they tend to pick up some sound from behind (which is risky situation in terms of room echo). On almost all productions indoor dialogue is picked up with supercardioid and hipercardioid pattern microphones. Fully understanding the concept of microphone pickup patterns is another essential thing to comprehend.
I hope some of the points I make can help you.