October 11, 2016
NYFF 2016

When a Movie Becomes a Movement: The Accidental Politics of 'Aquarius'

The team behind this year's Brazilian standout is not afraid to speak out against the injustices in their country. 

Kleber Mendonça Filho may have written Aquarius intending to show simply one woman's struggle with a greedy construction company, but as his home country slipped further and further into political unrest, it became something much more.

"At the time we shot it in 2013, it was the quiet before the storm," said Filho at the 2016 New York Film Festival. "Things started to go downhill politically soon after, and then that’s when the country got very divided in a very simplistic way. Of course, there were the leftists and the people from the right wing; that’s basically how sophisticated the whole division is right now in Brazil."

"You write the things you would like to hear."

The film tells the story of Clara, a 65-year-old widow, cancer survivor, and last resident of the Aquarius, a building she has lived in for nearly all of her adult life. The neighboring apartments of the aging complex have all been abandoned, only to be acquired by a construction company resolute in forcing Clara out so they can destroy it and build something new. Unfortunately for them, Clara is set on staying.


Due to the strong parallels between Clara's plight and the plight of the people of Brazil, the film has now taken on a new meaning. Her fight with the construction company and the shady tactics they employ to take advantage of her can be seen through the lens of an entire citizenship's struggle with a corrupt government. The people of Brazil had found their champion in an unlikely hero, as Aquarius garnered international acclaim and provided them with a protagonist whose story was their own.

"When I was in the middle of it, I kept thinking of all the other films that have been picked up by society and politics where the situations just went completely out of control," said Filho. "I think it’s a beautiful thing."

"We just thought it was very democratic and national to say, ‘There is something wrong, something strange going on in Brazil.’ And it really hit a nerve."

Much of the film's success in the political sense can be contributed to Filho's yearning to find a platform to decry injustice. "You write the things you would like to hear," he explained. "It’s what your characters say and it seems to strike people in the best possible way. When it doesn’t strike them in the best possible way, it makes them angry. They react against the film. It’s a beautiful thing, even if there are a lot of ugly things taking place."

Unsurprisingly, those that did react against the film were employed by the Brazilian government. The cast and crew of the film made their biggest statement at Cannes, where the film premiered earlier this year. On the red carpet, they staged a protest against the suspension of Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff, holding up signs that read “Brazil is experiencing a coup d’etat” and “54,501,118 votes set on fire!”

Photo Courtesy of Shutterstock.

Filho explained the reasoning behind his protest saying. "This year, as things got more dramatic, we went to the Cannes Film Festival to present the film. At that time, the whole impeachment process had begun after a very dramatic April 17. It was a historic day in Brazil congress. When we went to Cannes, they had slashed the ministry of culture, so we just thought it was very democratic and national to say, ‘There is something wrong, something strange going on in Brazil.’ And it really hit a nerve."

"It was picked up by international media," Filho continued. "Of course, the film itself has a strong point of view in terms of how society works, so we got a lot of support from millions of people and we got a lot of attacks. We were on the front line."

Brazil decided not to choose the film to represent the country for next year's Foreign Film Oscar, despite the fact it has been the most widely praised product to come out of the country in decades.

The actions at Cannes inspired copycat protests all around the world, including Sydney, Munich, and Paris. "It became a symbol for something," Filho said. "And when it finally opened in Brazil on September 1, it kind of became a cultural phenomenon, because it seemed to play with the idea of catharsis."

The government responded by giving the film a harsh 18+ rating—extremely rare in Brazil—for "explicit sex" and "drugs." Filho was justifiably suspicious of the decision, along with much of the international media. He said it was "highly unusual" and that "other films which are even stronger sexually had gotten 16 or 14."

Sonia Braga as Clara in "Aquarius."

Brazil decided not to choose the film to represent the country for next year's Foreign Film Oscar, despite the fact it has been the most widely praised product to come out of the country in decades. Sonia Braga, who plays Clara and was also on hand discussing the film at NYFF, expressed her confusion and disappointment in their decision. "It was like a back and forth of not understanding that we were only using our rights as citizens, individually or as a group," she said. "In a democracy, that’s what you should do when you don’t agree with the acts of a few."

She took her anger a step further. "In my view, it’s not a government that should decide who should represent Brazil—it is the audiences," she said. "The decision of not choosing our movie to represent our country at the Oscars is the decision of a government that I do not recognize."

So where is the line drawn between political activist and filmmaker? Or are the two inextricable? Braga believes if you are given the opportunity to express the thoughts and feelings of a people who have been oppressed through a platform with wide appeal, then it is your duty to do so. "I think that’s the job of the artist," she remarked. "Every time I've played a role in my life, it was a channel for me to speak to the people that I’m interested in, the country that I love. I think this movie is very special in that sense."

According to Braga, the director has an even more important role. Braga likened Filho to "an archaeologist and musician at the same time. He digs as much as he can and defines what he finds. He digs a little bit deeper to find the treasure within it."

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Your Comment


Hey Jon, fellow brazilian here. Well i understand what the film means as a movement, also i understand the political meaning that it carries, what i dont understand is that what most of those people fight are things that goes on opposite way of what is benefical to them. Yeah, Brazil is in an uproar with Temer and Dilma, the context? The same old thing of left vs right. Problem: Many artists here fight on brazil against the government because the new measures include things such as the dissolution of the Ministry of Culture. While it may seem bad, here they use laws such as the "Incentivo da Cultura" to make overpriced productions with false purposes, and this film is such. The film was the favorite here on Brazil to compete for many prizes in Cannes and yet it came back home without winning the prizes it told it would win. And yet "A Moça que Dançou com o Diabo", a film made with R$ 500 had a honorary mention at it. For years, school system stayed the same but just after Temer taking place they are already making changes on education, and relevant changes. While it may seem that Aquarius is a movement and a statement, and of that i think it's amazing, now what the film is stating it's other story. I may bite my tongue, they are protesting as it appears that they are against what is illegal, they dont agree with Temer governmentship (while they elected him just as they did with Dilma) but the thing is: the country might change for so much better that this movie might become a really stupid statement in the future. Yeah they should invest on culture and whatnot, sure, but they are just protesting for what is beneficial to them. Many artists on Brazil are protesting for such reasons, they state it is a coup d'etat but let so many years of corruption slide, so many years of taking away money from Petrobras slide, hell we have many of the biggest natural resources on the world and still many thing are overpriced as hell, many car parts and cars are build here and yet everything is friggin overpriced. So i prefer to believe in A Moça que Dançou com o Diabo rather than Aquarius, for obvious reasons. One thing is to make a protest, and a coherent one, another is protest against corruption while doing the same. Researching the facts it might show that our Rouanet Law did make so much money (on taxes of course) and yet there is such a particular trait to it: They need political aprovement of film projects and such, the problem is: 3% of cultural projects have earned 50% of the year budget to their projects, and coincidentally most of those projects are from such protesters.

October 11, 2016 at 3:56PM


Thank you so much for this context Matheus!

One thing that Sonia Braga also admitted to is that she hadn't seen the film which the government of Brazil had chosen for the Oscar representative (I'm assuming that is the film you mentioned - A Moça que Dançou com o Diabo) but I can only hope that this type of film finds its way to an international audience as well.

October 11, 2016 at 4:00PM

Jon Fusco

The film selected to represent brazil at the Oscar, was "Little Secret"by David Schurmann, based on a real story about a girl who is born with HIV. It was screened last night at Rio Film Festival.

October 11, 2016 at 5:45PM

Pedro Urizzi

Hey Jon, another fellow brazilian here!

Just to sum up to the context, I'd like to highlight this line from Filho: "and then that’s when the country got very divided in a very simplistic way."

The political view from Matheus is just one side of the coin. To understand the importance of Aquarius in our historical moment everyone should consider to analyze both opinion sides, and not forget to ponder the role of culture in the formation of a health society.

We are living a complex moment, much more profound than some paragraphs of speech repeated to exhaustion in our media, and repeated here for our friend above.

October 11, 2016 at 10:44PM, Edited October 11, 10:44PM


Hi Jon. I was not going to write anything here, because the post already says enough, but as I read Matheus comments above, I have to say that his view is completely mistaken and I feel ashamed for what he has just said.

Im a brazilian that lives in São Paulo and works with film, advertising and music videos. But most important of all, Im a thinking human being and not just a person that accepts what the major media is telling us. And this is extremely necessary if you live in Brazil.

To connect the film with the Rouanet Law is something completelly stupid, since movies have their own Law to get tax incentive money, called "Lei do Audiovisual". It seems like he doesn't know very much what his talking about, but insists in saying that if it was "the truth".

He talks about the changes Temer is making in education... God... Just as an appetizer, google "PEC 241" and you'll see...

The only thing I can say is that his view surely doesn't represent the view of the major part of brazilian filmmakers.

‘There is something wrong, something strange going on in Brazil.’
(just as there is Trump in the US)

October 12, 2016 at 11:50AM

Thales Banzai
Director; Screenwriter

Dear Jon Fusco,
if possible try to talk to the film director. He will be happy to explain that it´s a LIE that the movie was overpriced. There is lots of lies around the movie since the crew decided to express their thoughts about the deep politik shit Brazil is going thru... one good news source is the intercept, it shows the shit from both sides... of course we always think our side shit smells better. :D :D :D :D :D KALLISTI! :) great article! :)

October 12, 2016 at 5:43PM, Edited October 12, 5:45PM

Guto Novo
Cosmic Bum.

The film choosed to represent the country was made with some money of my actual state but without any transparence. Only the governor give something like U$ 500,000.00 to the producer. And they did it without any discussion or law. Only take the money and go make your movie. In My state Santa Catarina we have a type of public contest to producers receive public money to make their films. Then what I can say is the choose of "Little secret" is a signal that things in Brazil are turning like in the 80's.

October 14, 2016 at 9:30AM

L.S. Alves

You don't know what you're saying.

October 12, 2016 at 1:01PM


OH MY! Where do I start?
I am brazilian, and a cinematographer. The story portrayed here is the perfect OPPOSITE from the truth.
In short, we have just impeached the most corrupt government this country has ever seen (and, trust me, what you american and european friends consider corrupt pales in comparison to what we have here) and this director and these actors protesting in Cannes are just very well paid employees of the former, corrupt, outed government party, both in the practical AND literal sense!
Kleber Mendonça Filho (the director) actually had a job on the corrupt former government.
I was personnaly on a parade asking for the impeachment of this people in Copacabana beach, and there were more than ONE AND A HALF MILLION people protesting on the beach!! (march 13, if you wanto to check on Youtube)
About 9 in 10 people in Brazil wanted these people not only out of the office, but in jail. To give you an idea of the level of corruption of the guys these actors were defending in Cannes, just one minister was caught with 348 MILLION DOLLARS of bribe money! The amount of corruption is literally incalculable!
So, this article, as good spirited as I believe the author is, actually is an insult to every honest person in Brazil.
These people are criminals, not artists.
And the brazilians posting here defending the film, the former government, or bashing the new government are... never mind. Suffices to say that after this "coup de estate" as stated by them, the party outed made a coalition with the new "corrupt" government in almost 10.000 cities for the mayor elections... must be the first ever case of protesting against and working together at the same time!
I am very sorry if all this seem surreal, but unfortunately, that´s how we live here.

October 14, 2016 at 2:06AM, Edited October 14, 2:19AM


Too many lies in so few lines!!!!

It's important to say that there is a battle in Brazil for the narrative of the coup. Lellis and Favaron are obviously right wing people and see the world through this prism. Then let me put others colors in this history.

The cost production was R$ 3,4 millions in today values U$ 1 million dollars for a feature movie with Sonia Braga!!!
The greatest user of "Lei Rouanet" is the REDE GLOBO the most powerfull midia complex of latin america.
The "president" Michel Temer and their partners apply the coup to scape from federal investigation.
The country is really divided in left and right wing, but not like Neto Favaron said, in the really is something like fifty-fifty.
For 18 years Filho worked to "Fundação Joaquim Nabuco" as programmer of the foundation's cinema and the only thing to shame is the payment, U$ 1.3 thousand dollars.

Matheus Lellis say:
"One thing is to make a protest, and a coherent one, another is protest against corruption while doing the same."

I really love to see he proves the corruption in Aquarius production!

"Lei Rouanet" was created in the 90's and works in this way. You make a project and take him to culture bureau. The bureau's technicians study your project. If it is all right they give you a Certify. With this certify you go knocking door by door of the companies. If one company likes your ideia they will give you the money and then the company use this like credits in the federal taxes.

October 14, 2016 at 9:38AM, Edited October 14, 9:38AM

L.S. Alves