Tony Gilroy's 5 Simple Rules for Writing an Original Screenplay

Tony Gilroy BAFTA Screenwriting Lecture 5 Simple Rules for Writing an Original ScreenplayNarrative film is certainly a collaborative medium, but almost always it begins with a writer putting words on a page. The blank page, unfortunately, isn't the most collaborative partner. So, how do you write an original screenplay? Every writer has his or her own methods, and I think we can learn a great deal from the methods of a successful screenwriter. A few days ago, writer/director Tony Gilroy tackled this most basic question of how to write an original screenplay in his talk at the BAFTA Screenwriting Lecture series, which essentially boils down to five simple rules.

Tony Gilroy is a screenwriter, director and producer, best known for writing all four of the Bourne series of films. You may think that means Gilroy is actually well-versed in the ways of adapting novels to the big screen, but Gilroy has actually never read a single novel by Robert Ludlum, the author who wrote the Jason Bourne novels. Instead, Gilroy created his own version of the Jason Bourne story when he wrote the screenplays for The Bourne Identity and subsequent films. In fact, of all his screenwriting credits, Gilroy says only one -- Dolores Claiborne -- is truly an adaptation of a novel.

Gilroy therefore decided to focus his BAFTA Screenwriting Lecture on the most basic screenwriting question: How do you write an original screenplay?

You can listen to Tony Gilroy explain his simple rules for writing an original screenplay in more detail in his BAFTA Screenwriting Lecture from September 29, 2013 below. You can also listen to the follow-up Q&A session in the second Soundcloud embed.

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After listening to his lecture, I've pulled out what I believe are Gilroy's five simple rules for writing an original screenplay.

1. Know and Understand Human Behavior

Before writing a single word of a story, a screenwriter has to know and understand human behavior. Gilroy states his belief that "the quality of your writing is absolutely capped at your knowledge of human behavior."

Although Gilroy makes this point in the middle of his lecture, I believe this is the fundamental point of his speech. He explains how screenwriters have to have empathy for all of the main characters in their screenplays to understand their motivations and their choices. A good screenplay starts with the writer's understanding of human behavior.

2. Start with a Small Idea

Many aspiring screenwriters may think they need to come up with a really big idea in order to write a screenplay that is worthy of becoming a movie. When creating an original story for a screenplay out of sheer imagination, Gilroy believes the exact opposite:

We need a spark. We need some place to start. We need something really small. Something small and very, very specific. The big ideas don’t work.

Gilroy also talks about the mantra of "write what you know" and explains it should really be "write what you know about." As writers and creators, we have the ability to research and learn about so many different topics, which means what we really know is always growing. But with our ever-increasing knowledge, our story should start with a small idea, which will help us focus our imagination and ignore the enormity of creating an original story.

3. Play with the Idea

Gilroy explains that once he has a small idea that he thinks may lead to a story, he'll sit at his computer and play with the idea. For him, this usually means writing bits of dialogue between two characters or creating a single scene. He'll play with an idea until he loses interest, then may come back to the idea days, weeks, or even months later when it recaptures his imagination.

Gilroy says that his film Michael Clayton really started around one specific scene that he wrote years before actually making the movie (alas, the audio recording of the lecture doesn't tell us which scene he shows the audience!). Gilroy reveals that he wrote several versions of the Michael Clayton story, each going in different directions, but all of them centered around this one particular scene that he wrote first.

4. Write an Outline

Gilroy reveals that he must outline every part of the story before even writing one page of the screenplay. His outlines can stretch from 30 pages up to 80 pages, and he admits that they can be an absolute mess with sections written in different fonts, cut and pasted from several different documents. Regardless of how his outline comes together, he says that every scene must feel real and he must know the ending of his story before starting the actual screenplay.

The writer/director also admits "every time I have ignored my own rules, I have paid the price," usually in the form of wasted time rewriting the screenplay when the work should have been done on the outline.

5. Write the Screenplay

Once you know your whole story from the outline process, Gilroy points out that it's fun to write the screenplay. Plus, the whole time you are writing the screenplay, you are actually making your story better from the outline you worked so hard to create. During this part of the writing process, Gilroy acknowledges that a lot of material from the outline will need to be cut -- and this is a good thing:

There’s really nothing that feels any better than cutting out something you don’t need that you thought you needed.

Gilroy explains that the early pages of his screenplays invariably get pared down once he writes the ending and knows what he really needs and what he doesn't need. He admits that on every screenplay he writes, when he gets around page 85, he realizes he is at least 15 pages over where he should be and he has to streamline the early pages of the script.

Gilroy is also very particular about the look of his screenplay on the page. If dialogue breaks across the page and he doesn't like it, he'll find lines and descriptions that can be trimmed to make the page itself look right. According to him this work not only makes the scripts tighter and more concise, but the meticulous approach also makes his screenplays easier for people to read -- and read quickly. Someone once told him that reading one of his scripts was like "falling through your story."

Do you follow the same five simple rules when you write an original screenplay? What other rules do you have that are essential to your screenwriting process? Share your thoughts and rules with us in the comments.

Link: BAFTA Screenwriting Lecture: Tony Gilroy

[via BBC]

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Your Comment


I never liked my penmanship but I loved writing. So I used to cut out words out of magazines and newspapers to write. One day I told myself I would write a screenplay. So I dug out my father's playboy stash and started cutting. 3 and a half years later my first draft was done. I wanted Joss Whedon to read it so I broke into his home and while placing it on the table I cut my hand. Blood was all over the script. I thought it was fitting because it opened with a threatening letter. I may have accidentally ran over his cat... I think he may have called the police and they used the DNA from my blood to find me. I'm on a train not knowing what to do but I really liked this article and it means a lot since I'm a screenwriter. Thanks.

October 3, 2013 at 8:29AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


You took me on a journey. Thanks Julian. You write like R.E. Howard: more evocation on one page than most people manage on three.

October 3, 2013 at 11:53AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM

You voted '-1'.

This really got to me. Thank you so much.
- J

October 10, 2013 at 10:57PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM

Julian Terry

Please, someone make a short movie out of this comment. It's hilarious.

October 3, 2013 at 12:27PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM



October 4, 2013 at 12:38AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


Thanks I wrote that when I was deliriously tired.

October 10, 2013 at 10:55PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM

Julian Terry

How did you write this? Aren't you worried about the police?

October 3, 2013 at 8:40AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


The dream police.

October 3, 2013 at 11:44AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


Understanding human behavior is important if one is good at that. Judging the crap on the market where is this insight? It is the big ideas that make money. This is exactly the reason young writers are running in that direction. A good script is great but an explosive script is excellent.

When Hollywood's focus changes, then, I think writers will look to write more poignant works. At the moment, it is run gun and explode.

October 3, 2013 at 11:49AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


Of the two shaggy dog stories, this one is shaggier.

October 3, 2013 at 1:00PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


I think that what's going on with a lot of the crap out there (which is most of everything) is that the creators are trying to show us human behavior that's out of the norm. Way out of the norm. Unbelievably so.

October 3, 2013 at 1:13PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


Michael Clayton is one of the best written screenplays ever. I recommend it to every aspiring writer, it is both indulgent and sparse - the opening monologue versus the simple prose "Michael Runs."
Varying fonts within the script also make for a nice writing trick, it's a MUST READ.

October 3, 2013 at 2:24PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


The scene from Michael Clayton that Gilroy showed is the one set in a rich guy's kitchen in the middle of the night after the guy has been involved in a suspected hit and run and called his lawyers, who send their fixer Clayton (Clooney).

(mild spoiler)

But Clayton tells him there's nothing the firm can do for him and that he's better off with a local lawyer and has already rung one for him. The guy is incensed, but Clayton remains impassive, and eventually the guy breaks down and admits what happened. Clayton leaves him crying in his kitchen, waiting for the police to come.

October 4, 2013 at 1:49AM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


Thanks for closing the loop for us, Douglas. Much appreciated.

October 4, 2013 at 6:16PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM

Christopher Boone

I agree with just about everything except for no #4. Although notes and even a rough outline can be good in the beginning ,you really can't work off an outline without actually writing scenes and dialogue to know if any of it is working or not. It's also when I think the mind "subconsciously" works its best and new ideas emerge.

Honestly, if your going to get bogged down at the writing stage it's better to agonize over it on the screenplay itself were your working on the actual thing then at the treatment stage trying to figure things out.

October 4, 2013 at 9:56PM, Edited September 4, 8:21AM


It's funny, the moment someone mentions an outline, two camps seem to emerge; the pros and the cons. And they are both right. Every writer has (or should have) a process that works for him/her. What Gilroy describes is his process, that is, he outlines heavily to discover he story, and other writers write pages to discover the story. Both are viable approaches, and at that they are just the beginning of a screenplay, because lots of work must follow to properly structure, polish and eventually finish the screenplay. I think Gilroy's most universal comment is about human nature/behavior.

April 14, 2014 at 1:41PM, Edited September 4, 8:56AM


Have a greatbideacfircacrobwrtbludkum stlebbooknorcscrip. Could someone tell me howcto contactblidlum to propose a collaboration? Please. I would be very grateful. Had a stroke recently so sm weak wnd less resourceful as a eesult

June 26, 2014 at 1:22AM, Edited September 4, 8:56AM


Can I insert a famous piece of artwork in my screenplay? What are the rules for that?

June 21, 2016 at 2:38PM, Edited June 21, 2:38PM

nickalaus Robledo