DIY Solutions for Shooting Underwater and in Deep, Dark Caves

Here's what one filmmaker learned from her underwater experiments while shooting a film about deep sea exploration.

[Editor’s note: No Film School asked artist and experimental filmmaker Shanna Maurizi to share her experiences with underwater cinematography in caves for her current film ‘Explorer’.]

My new film Explorer  wends its way through the void, following logbook entries that re-imagine the “explorer” and what is being explored. Moments from the films of Jacques Cousteau are restaged underwater, as a new narrator searches for sunken treasure and animal life. Production required me to do something I had never done before: shoot underwater, including in situations where I couldn’t get in the water myself.

I had been invited by the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Rijeka, Croatia to complete the film in Central Europe, and the museum was immensely helpful as I planned shoots in remote caves and underwater in the Adriatic Sea.

I found the best shots were obtained by fixing myself on the sea floor like a tripod. 

Shooting underwater when you can’t go underwater

The first location was a vast water cave with spectacular karst formations. I wanted to film underwater in the series of underground lakes, which are traversed by boat. Unfortunately, I couldn’t actually get in the water for ecological reasons, so I fabricated a remote pole out of PVC pipe in the museum workshop. The camera rig, an Ikelite housing with the Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera (BMPCC) inside, was small enough to make this possible, but also had enough heft to give it some stability.

Dealing with deep darkness

The inside of a cave is never touched by sunlight. Appearances are elusive and shift according to the type of light you bring with you. I wanted to use infrared, to “see” with this invisible high frequency wavelength, so I also brought a Bell and Howell “ghost hunting” camera, which has no IR cut and records full spectrum.
Ana Jurcic from the collective Filmaktiv was the intrepid sound recordist, and Igor Mavko, our guide, wrapped an underwater light around an oar and became the gaffer.
I had no way to know the exposure underwater beforehand, so I did a couple of tests at the start and locked down a setting. 16mm cine prime lenses on the Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera created just the look I was going for, but focus was a big issue. I eyeballed the distance from the camera to the bottom and edges of the lakes and estimated. Changing the focal length would require opening up the housing, which is iffy, as it’s a damp environment and could cause fogging in the housing, or I could drop things in the boat or drip water all over. I had no idea what I was getting, but the camera on the pole could in fact see parts of the cave no one had seen before. Looking at the footage later was incredible; parts of it I couldn’t even identify.
Infrared still from the cave shootCredit: Shanna Maurizi

The buoyancy factor

Shooting in the Adriatic was my first experience with fully underwater cinematography and, I have to admit, it wasn’t easy. The first challenge was buoyancy. The camera and housing had a severe positive buoyancy in the Adriatic, which is a pretty salty sea. I tied some fishing weights on and got that under control. It’s recommended to keep your rig a bit heavier than neutral, because if you lose it, it’s easier to find it on the bottom than floating in the sea.

The constant motion of the water and the difficulty of swimming without using your arms make it hard to keep camera movement smooth.

Balancing camera gear with scuba gear

Of course, a major hurdle was that I had to learn to scuba dive. I had excellent training at Marco Polo Dive Center, but this did not prepare me for the practicalities of shooting. Divers use both of their hands, one for the Buoyancy Control valve and one to keep pinching their nose to equalize the pressure in their ears. Not attending to either of these things can lead to real problems.

So how do you use both of your hands to hold and operate a camera? I’m still not really sure, but I found the best shots were obtained by fixing myself on the sea floor like a tripod. Swimming shots are a challenge, as the constant motion of the water and the difficulty of swimming without using your arms make it hard to keep camera movement smooth. Experienced divers confirmed that it’s impossible and the best way is to slow down the footage.

Underwater in the Adriatic SeaCredit: Shanna Maurizi

Compensating for underwater light intensity

On the training dives, I tried to estimate the intensity of the light underwater. On the first shoot, I had estimated accurately, and the exposure worked great. On the second shoot, I accounted for the deeper depth by opening up two stops, but once I descended to the shipwreck site, it was much brighter than I expected. Luckily, this shoot was saved by the wide range in the Raw DNG capture of the BMPCC. The camera worked well for the project throughout, as I had the dynamic range to allow real creativity with the cine lenses, which had no motor control in the housing.

Sound Recordist Ana Jurcic on location

Staying aware of your surroundings

Another issue I encountered was that intense focus on shooting and repeating takes makes you unaware of your surroundings in the water. Being utterly mesmerized by the scene around me, I hadn’t noticed that my shot parallel to the sea floor was actually dropping in depth, and repeating it over and over was not ideal because of pressure changes.

And don’t forget to stay hydrated and keep up your calorie intake. It’s important to note that the body burns energy at a much faster rate underwater than at the surface.

Shanna Maurizi’s film ‘Explorer’ is currently in post-production and will be completed in the spring of 2017. Maurizi is an artist and experimental filmmaker living and working in Brooklyn, New York. Her work has been exhibited widely in California and New York,  as well as the Netherlands and Central Europe.

Your Comment


I was pitching a commercial to a tropical resort and had to spend a week training myself on underwater shooting. I was lucky enough to have an expensive Nauticam Rig for my 5D. Housings like that are, as you suggested, slightly heavier than neutral buouancy and make all the difference. They also have gears to adjust focus or even zoom, which is super helpful. But yeah, learning to focus under water is a trick. Probably the biggest lesson I learned was how to move your body. Having forward movement works or any kind of intentional movement, that way you're not trying to stabilize yourself in the water while keeping a camera still. It also helped that besides already being scuba certified, I was trained in freediving a month earlier and was able to stay down, without a tank for a minute or two. I did this whole little test without scuba stuff.

One last helpful thing on exposure: depending on where you are relative to the surface, remember that it's very dark below you and very dark above you, so if you follow motion from down to up or vice versa, the exposure changes dramatically. Generally I over exposed for the shadows because the white streaks of the sun just felt dreamy to me, but you don't want it all to blow out.

Here's my results from the tests:

October 27, 2016 at 12:30PM, Edited October 27, 12:35PM

Thomas R. Wood

Whereas I appreciate that the article is a brief overview, there are far more things to consider when shooting underwater than the basics here and I would never advise simply learning to dive then jumping in the water with a camera if you want decent results.

I am a professional Underwater Cinematographer and it takes years and a lot of financial investment to gain the training and skill to shoot exceptional underwater images. The first thing is to become an excellent diver before even considering taking a camera with you and this takes a lot of dives in different conditions to achieve, not only that, you also have to consider the safety factors, risk assessments, bail out plans and everything that happens when things go wrong.

My most recent shoot was a behind the scenes film for a 360VR project about Mobula Rays which you can see here and I'd be happy to answer any questions anyone may have about filming underwater either here or via my website

It's nice to see underwater filming mentioned here as it's not often mentioned.

Keep up the great work with the site!

October 31, 2016 at 7:16AM

David Diley